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Abstract "Heft 22"

Freiburger Bodenkundliche Abhandlungen

Schriftenreihe des

Institut für Bodenkunde und Waldernährungslehre
der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg i.Br.
Schriftleitung: F. Hädrich

Heft 22

Franz Lamparski

Bodenfauna und synökologische Parameter als Indikatoren für Standortseigenschaften

Freiburg im Breisgau 1988

ISSN 0344-2691


Soil fauna and gynecological parameters as indicators for stand properties The aim of this investigation is to show the relationship between selected groups of the soil fauna and the conditions in the  soil horizons of mull and raw humus. Thereby it was possible to describe in more detail the network of the humus profile as well as to reveal the different connections between groups of soil animals and the humus profile as their environment.

The soil fauna of four stands in the Black Forest (each more than 1000m a.s.l) was studied using pitfall traps. Two of these stands, the almost natural mixed stand (Luzulo-Fagetum with silver fir (MB) with silver fir (Abies alba) and red beech (Fagus silvatica)  and  the Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest (MF) shows mull as the humus formation and a Dystric Cambisol as the soil profile.

The other two stands are characterised by raw humus, one, a pure Norway spruce stand (WF) on a Dystric Cambisol, and the other, a spruce forest (BF) on a Podzol locally changing in Spodo-Dystric Cambisol.

The following groups of animals were studied:
(The abbreviations mean: I = number of individuals, S = number of species, G = number of genus)
Curculionidae: I = 12509, S = 23, G = 13,
Diplopoda: I = 891, S = 6, G = 6,
Trichoptera: 981 individuals of Enoicvla pusilla.
Lithobiidae: I = 614, S = 10, G = 1,
Pseudoskorpiones I = 787, S = 2, G = 1,
Opiliones  I = 6633, S = 8, G = 8,
Araneae: I = 4993, S = 68, G = 43,
Staphylinidae:  I = 8613, S = 76, G = 35,
Carabidae: I = 4628, S = 29, G = 14.

Wherever the number of species and individuals in one group allowed it, an index of dominance (SIMPSON 1949), an index of diversity (SHANNON-WIENER 1948) and the evenness (Mac ARTHUR 1965) were determined to characterise the dominance structure.

To reveal the similarities between different stands, two types of indices are shown: those which accentuate the species (index of similarity (S0RENSEN 1948), SPEARMAN'S rank correlation) and those which accentuate the dominance ( identity of dominance (RENKONEN 1938), index of difference, (Mac ARTHUR 1965). Thus numerical data are completed by tables as used in plant sociology-
To determine the degree of interrelation between animals and the structure of their environment, the amount of visible structural compounds was estimated on an area of 4m surrounding the pitfall traps. The highest value of total diversity was linked to the highest variations found in MF (diversity 1.71, maximal differen-ces: ? div. 1.10). The lowest diversity was found in the area surrounding the traps of WF (diversity 1.44, ? div. 0.92), and the values of BF and MB lie between these. The diversity of the area surrounding the traps shows the smallest variations in MB (? div. 0.26) .

The index of difference between the trap areas is the lowest in MB, whereas they were highest in WF and MF.
Concerning the Staphylinidae no relation can be shown between the diversity of the area around the trap and the community of Staphylinidae that live there. The diversity of these areas lies between 0.67 and 1.53 while the diversity of the staphylinids varies independently of the area structure (approximately by 1).

Similarities within the areas around the traps, which were evaluated by the index of difference were reflected in similarities of the community of Staphylinidae. There is a correlation between the parameters with r=0.38, a =< 10%. This can also be shown fnr the carabid beetles. Within this group the indices of difference of the area around the traps and of the community of the carabids show positive correlation in WF (r=0.6, a =< 1%) and in MB (r=0.38, a =< 10%). In MF and BF there also exists a positive correlation which is weaker than in WF and MB.

No relation between the indices of difference of the area around the pitfall traps and the animal community, can be shown for the spider community in the raw humus. In the stands with a mull, a positive correlation can be seen between these (MB r=0.64, a =< 10%, MF r=0.31).

The composition of the community of zoophagous animals changes with regard to mull and raw humus. The dominant groups in the mull are the spiders and the carabid beetles, while in raw humus the staphylinids are dominant, with higher numbers of the Pseudo-scorpiones and Lithobiidae groups.

Regarding one group, larger sized species are found in the mull, while smaller sized species live in the raw humus. It is the same observation regarding one genus and is obvious within the spiders, carabid beetles and Lithobiidae. Raw humus also tends to have a decreasing number of species with one showing almost total dominance.

In total, the high number of species, which is linked to small numbers of individuals and a relatively high value of evenness in the mull, contrasts to the situation in the raw humus. Here a small number of species, high number of individuals and a low value of evenness is found. Comparing the mull and raw humus in this way, the two biocoenotic principles of THIENEMANN become obvious.

With regard to the soil fauna the example of MF shows that spruce forests are generally not unbalanced systems with a high index of dominance. This is only the case if the type of humus is degraded.

This becomes apparent by regarding the values of diversity and evenness of the 6 groups of animals that have been studied: A balanced and manifold composition can be seen in 5 groups in MB,in 4 in MF,in 3  in WF and only in one group (Araneae) in BF.
The values of evenness including zoophagous animals increases to 0.68 in MB, to 0.57 in MF, to 0.52 in WF and to 0.5 in BF. It can be seen that only the "almost natural" forest of silver fir and red beech (MB) reaches the class of evenness between 0.6 and 0.8 which is characteristic for a "steady-state-system" (ODUM 1980) .

With dendrograms it was tested whether individuals groups of animals reflect known differences between the stands. Opiliones, Pseudoskorpiones and Araneae indicate similarities between the spruce forests whereas the beech forest (MB) is the exceptional case. Lithobiidae, Carabidae and Staphylinidae indicate a strong similarity    within the  same type  of humus.
Since the results are very homogeneous between the groups of animals, it can be summarised in two main groups: The first consists of Opiliones, Pseudoskorpiones and Araneae, and the second  consists  of  Carabidae  and  Staphylinidae.
These two groups are also significant in a biological sense: The group of the Arachnida shows differences in the composition of the forest type while the group of zoophagous beetles indicate differences  in the type of humus.

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